The Singareni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL) is a Government coal mining company jointly owned by the Government of Telangana and Government of India on a 51:49 equity basis. The Singareni coal reserves stretch across 350 Km of the Pranahita – Godavari Valley of Telangana with a proven geological reserves aggregating to whopping 8791 million tones. SCCL is currently operating 16 opencast and 30 underground mines in 4 districts of Telangana with manpower around 58,837.
While historically technology has been a critical factor in SCCL's ability to reduce environmental impacts and occupational hazards, the need to constantly increase productivity and cut costs has demanded that the company goes in for phased mechanization and adapts state-of-the-art technologies
SCCL pioneered mechanization of coal mines in India by adopting coal drilling machines as far back as in 1937. In 1950 Shuttle Cars, Gathering Arm Loaders, Conveyors and Coal Plough Equipment were introduced. Later in a path breaking move to replace arduous manual labor, Road Headers, Load Haul Dumpers and Side Dump Loaders were gradually brought in
Detailed surveying of the open pit mine was performed through an electronic total station. By measurements attained spatial data were processed by pertinent proprietary software. Subsequently, the determined spatial coordinated were imported into the graphic calculating software's for further processing and visualisation. These graphical-calculating applications make possible not only 3D modelling and visualising of surfaces but also their analysing, especially then determining the volumetric data that represent various aspects necessary to assess as activities within the related branches so possible future development.
In the geodetic practice, determining of the volume presents a highly frequent task. Geodetic measurements present the basis for volumes determining, and using them realized are precision surveying of the terrain shape. In question are determining of various volumes of stockpile, mineral deposit resources or recoverable reserves, potential volume of waste dump, possibly of non-extracted stockpiles the extractable open pit mine area.
According to the quarry is both a workplace and plant for extracting minerals shallowly situated under the earth surface. Within the quarry, most frequently determined are being volumes for the purpose of determining volumes of already mined minerals or possibly for determining extractable volumes of minerals. For the reason, performed within the quarry are geodetic surveys; precisely surveyed was the quarry terrain shape. These activities stand for field works. The office work is to process the attained data to a format suitable for further processing to determine the volume out of acquired data.
Import Points in PENZ format
One of the most challenging issues in India's mining sector is the lack of assessment of India's natural resources a number of areas remain unexplored and the mineral resources in these areas are yet to be assessed. The distribution of minerals in the areas known is uneven and varies drastically from one region to another. Today's mining companies are under pressure to increase productivity in order to offset capital and operational cost escalations, as well as the impact of a volatile commodity market. As the global commodity boom slows down, mining companies are facing the fact that growth and expansion are often curtailed as capital projects are simply too expensive to execute. For mining companies to gain flexibility and create further value, the situation calls for action focused on improved processes and the use of new technologies. This should encourage strong profitable growth despite the volatile market with key challenges in the mining industry such as securing resources, operational agility, improved efficiencies, and remote locations, having a process to address these challenges is critical. Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Autodesk can manage data and design workflows across the entire mining ecosystem.
Calculation of the stockpile volume presents a purposeful and self-contained procedure of collecting, processing and assessing the data on geological position and quantity of industrial minerals in their natural or anthropogenic embedding, which allows coming to decisions on their further utilization. At determining volumes, a frequently applied step is to determine volume of certain areas, which is performed by multiple ways:
Determining volumes and overburden rocks in open pit mines falls amongst important and integral parts of the mine surveying operations. Core of determining volumes of bodies that are delineated by irregular (topographic) areas dwells in that irregular bodies are appropriately broken down to smaller geometrical bodies, volumes of which are determined by pertinent solid geometry equations. Even though calculations of volumes are approximate only, they prove to be sufficient for a raft of practical tasks. The calculation of volumes issue is extensively which is performed by multiple ways:
The key features are as follows
Earthwork Calculation, Finish grade DTM, Visualization Land acquisition plan Drainage engineering, Plans production, Safety analysis, setting out reports, Road Designing & Engineering and last but not the least Quantity take off.
AutoCAD Civil 3D of the most one Cost Effective package which helps in achieving the following objectives:
Software surface modelling and subsequent determining of the volume presents the most frequently used way of arriving to information on the stockpile (quantity) of a mineral (industrial mineral) in given locality (storages of the mineral, waste dump, etc.). Determining the stockpile volume of minerals in open pit mines is predominantly utilised to plan the quarry extraction and operation. Modelling a body surface is an integral part of almost all infrastructural projects, from designing slopes at line structures through modelling the landscape and the terrain up to planning of mining operations.
Best the issue can be resolved in software environments (AutoCAD Civil 3D). Which contain effective tools for the body surface modelling. When designing models of bodies calculated is volume of the material. Yet, modelling of a measured real surface in a software environment presents just an intermediate step to determining the volume Used for determining the volume of irregular objects most frequently are three methods: • use of defined surfaces – the method is based on defining two surfaces with subsequent assigning of points one of which performs the function of the real surface (measured surface – upper surface) and the other one performs the function of reference surface (vertical alignment – lower surface). Both the upper and bottom surface are determined by triangulation based on spatial data. The solid circumscribed by these surfaces is divided into n triangular prisms. Use of horizontal sections – contour lines – non-symmetrical object can be divided into layers applying a system of horizontal planes crossing the body. The surveyed terrain will be graphically represented by a map elevation-related features in which can be represented by contour lines. Equidistance of contour lines, i.e. thickness of a layer is to be determined at designing the plant. Use of parallel vertical cross sections – this way of calculating is much more demanding than the one utilising surface defining. At this way of volume calculations is the volume determined on the basis of mathematical difference between the terrain surface and the developed surface of the corridor. To determine the volume of excavation or possibly embankments producing earthworks developed has to be surface of the corridor, terrain and traces of cross sections. Cross sections are as a rule selected as running parallel in intervals of 5, 10, 20, 50, possibly 100 m depending on segmentation of shape.
The overall precision of determining volumes of bodies is influenced by errors occurring during performing measurement and processing activities (errors in the terrain or landscape measurement, erroneously set up graphical supporting materials, errors in planimetry, etc.), as well as approximations errors. The latter errors are the most materially influencing overall imprecision of the volume being determined. Hence, it follows that a body of real dimensions and shape is replaced by a geometrised shape that most closely reflects the real shape, which inevitably follows from the fact that used to determine a volume is mathematical expression. Precision of determining volumes by software means is predominantly influenced by the below factors:
Digital terrain model is being, in the field of geo-informatics, used approximately since 1950. It presents an integral part of digital processing in the geographic information systems (GIS) environment. Further, it provides the space for modelling, analysing and depicting with topography and the terrain relief phenomena. The relief digital model (DMT), describes surface of the Earth void of vegetation and human-built structures such as buildings, bridges, etc. DMT, works exclusively with elevations (or heights above sea level) of points. Digital models include a series of cartography techniques by help of which expressed can be the form and shape of the terrain.
The terrain digital model (DMT) is digital representation of the Earth´s surface in the memory of a computer composed of data and an interpolating algorithm that allows deriving heights of the intermediate points. By the surface types, DMT can be divided in:
Range Surface Volume
The process of creation of a 3D model and of determining its shape-wise properties (distance, area, volume) does not often presents the goal of task-solving; it rather presents a means to its resolving. The terrain model presents the basic element of all projects and is used at creating longitudinal profiles, models of the corridor, at calculating volumes or creating terrestrial objects. The most recent AutoCAD Civil 3D software provide continuous interconnection of all objects with the surface, and there is the guarantee that results will be at all times up-to-date, whilst at modelling of a terrain establishing of volumes is performed automatically.
Precision of determining the 3D model volume depends also on consistent work performed during modelling of the surface. If a body surface is created unrealistically, realistically solved will not be the solution goal either (e.g. the volume being determined). 3D model of the discussed open pit mine was processed in three types of the terrain digital model.
DMT modelling is most often performed using the TIN model. Entering the process of creation are break lines so that the quarry was represented in as much detail as possible. Polyedric TIN model approximates real terrain more appropriately than the raster model provided that the terrain points are also appropriately arranged. To develop real terrain, the measured points were located on singularities. Contour model consists of contours with pertinent elevation (height) data. Contour lines break down to basic contour lines.
The modelled open pit mine terrain was further processed to determine the stockpile volume of the mineral. All of the three ways of determining the volume differ in the quantity of stockpile determining procedure. Calculation of the volume using two terrains is, compared with the other two suggested procedures, relatively fast. Currently modelled terrain had to be supplemented by another terrain that represented reference plane delimiting the reserves from the bottom. The software sets volume of the body delineated by the two surfaces. The lower terrain modelling was performed by using the open pit mine boundary points assigned to which was the selected elevation for reference plane on the level above sea level. The plane was selected for the need to establish the lowest exploiting level. Calculated based on comparison of two surfaces was the numeric value of the stockpile volume.
Calculating the volume by use of horizontal sections lied in generating the contour lines and in determining the volume of areas of surfaces circumscribed by selected contour lines having the interval.Calculating the volume by use of parallel vertical cross sections was performed and created cross sections. Further to the request of the principal and based on ratios of precision and size of the quarry, the section interval was selected as per require .Calculated, based on by AutoCAD Civil 3D generated parallel vertical cross sections and on determining their planar areas, was the extractable mineral's volume calculated. Volumes of irregular spatial formations bounded by vertical sections were determined based on the relations known from stereometry.
The surface between individual cross sections does not have to present a linear area (planar structure) at all times. This uncertainty influences precision of the volume calculation. The volume calculated based on two surfaces in AutoCAD Civil 3D environments renders relevant results. Volumes determined using two defined surfaces in the AutoCAD Civil 3D software are, at such high quantities of non-extracted stockpiles.
The geodetic surveying was performed to determine the volume of exploitable stockpiles of andesite in the mentioned quarry. The arrived at spatial information were used for further processing by AutoCAD Civil 3D. The basic step of software processing was modelling of the terrain based on by measurements attained data that would be most closely reflect the terrain real shape. The arrived at results are presented in both graphical and tabular forms. Upon processing the considered issue we have concluded that the relatively most precise method of determining the volume seems to be utilization of the method of two surfaces. Presently, in the geodesy practice is the processed issue significantly applicable. Ensuring attainment of maximum precision is contingent to quality of the geodetic gear used and to the experience of the surveyor not only at performing field work but at processing as well.
Multiple Cross Section Views